Stabilizing climate: An energy efficiency revolution
- 1 Early stages of two energy revolutions
- 2 Implementing Plan B
- 3 Pacala and Socolow (2004, Princeton University)
- 4 A revolution in lighting technology
- 5 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)
- 6 Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
- 7 Just turn it off
- 8 LEDs vs. CFLs
- 9 A revolution in lighting technology
- 10 Energy-efficient appliances
- 11 Zero-carbon buildings
- 12 Electrifying the transport system
- 13 A new materials economy
- 14 Smarter grids, appliances, and consumers
- 15 Tiny houses
- 16 The energy savings potential
- 17 Discussion: Carbon footprint
1 Early stages of two energy revolutions
Century-old technologies ⇒ Far more efficient technologies
An economy powered by fossil fuels ⇒ One powered by renewable energy
2 Implementing Plan B
Goal: Improve energy efficiency enough ⇒ Offset projected growth in energy use
2.1 CO2 emissions
Cutting net CO2 emissions 80% by 2020
- 386 parts per million (ppm) in 2008 ⇒ 400 ppm
2.2 Energy economy
Restructuring of the world energy economy is needed
- Improving energy efficiency
- Developing renewable sources of energy
- Those who develop new energy technologies will be strong in world markets
3 Pacala and Socolow (2004, Princeton University)
How could annual CO2 emissions be held at 7 billion tons, not 14, over 50 years?
Described 15 proven technologies.
Theorized that advancing technology would allow CO2 emissions to be cut to a level that natural CO2 sinks can absorb.
It is time to shift to the most promising energy technologies.
4 A revolution in lighting technology
Lighting sector is on the edge of a spectacular revolution.
Perhaps, the quickest and most profitable way to improve energy efficiency.
5 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)
The first advance in this field
75% less energy than old-fashioned incandescents
Production in China (85% of the world total) 750 million in 2001 ⇒ 2.4 billion in 2006
Sales in the US 21 million in 2000 ⇒ 397 million in 2007
1 billion out of 4.7 billion sockets in the US (21%) have CFLs.
5.1 The world is moving
In February 2007, Australia announced the phase-out plan of incandescents by 2010.
Canada soon followed with a 2012 phase-out goal.
In early 2009, the EU approved a phase-out of incandescents.
Brazil started a program to replace incandescents with CFLs ⇒ 50% sockets have CFLs.
In 2007, China announced a plan to replace all incandescents with more-efficient lighting.
India was planning to phase out incandescents by 2012.
5.2 Retailers are joining the switch
Walmart began a marketing campaign in 2007 to boost CFL sales.
Currys (Britain) discontinued sales of incandescents in 2007.
5.3 Other parts of the world
Office buildings, commercial outlets, and factories still use linear fluorescents.
6 Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
85% less energy than old-fashioned incandescents
Ultimate in lighting efficiency, but still too costly for most uses
6.1 Taking over niche markets
Traffic lights: 52% of the US market
Exit signs in buildings: 88% of the US market
New York cut its annual bill by $6 million by shifting to LEDs in many traffic lights.
In early 2009, LA said it would replace 140,000 street lights with LEDs.
Would save taxpayers $48 million over the next seven years.
Would result in reduction in carbon emissions equivalent to taking 7,000 cars off the road.
6.2 Universities are getting involved
University of California-Davis has a Smart Lighting Initiative—Campus parking garage first.
University of California-Santa Barbara
University of Arkansas
Tianjin Polytechnic University in China
7 Just turn it off
Save even more energy by turning lights off when not in use.
Numerous technologies for doing this
- Motion sensors
- Light sensors
LEDs with these technologies can cut energy consumption to <10% of that with incandescents.
8 LEDs vs. CFLs
LEDs last 5 times longer than CFLs.
Savings from both lower energy costs and the elimination of maintenance > the higher initial cost.
9 A revolution in lighting technology
What can a different light bulb do in terms of saving energy?
Over the ten year lifetime of a CFL compared to an incandescent bulb, one could power a Prius hybrid from NY to SF.
Shifting to energy-efficient lighting would cut the energy share of lighting from 19% to 7%.
Equivalent to closing 705 of the world’s 2,670 coal-fired plants (26%).
10 Energy-efficient appliances
10.1 Flat-screen TVs
Flat-screen TVs use 2x more energy than traditional cathode TVs.
Large-screen plasma TVs use 4x more.
In UK, some Cabinet members are proposing to ban plasma TVs.
California proposed that all new TVs draw 1/3 less by 2011, 49% less by 2013.
Just watch less TV!
10.2 Standby power
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) put savings from reducing standby power at the top of the list.
Electricity used in standby mode worldwide accounts for up to 10%.
In OECD countries, standby power 30W to +100W.
Its cumulative use is substantial.
10.2.1 Efforts to reduce standby power
South Korea caped standby power use by appliances to 1W by 2010.
Australia was doing the same by 2012.
In the US, 5% of residential electricity use is from standby mode.
- Dropping it to 1%, which could be done easily, could close 17 coal-fired plants
If China were to lower its standby losses to 1%, a far larger number of plants could be closed.
10.3 China is the big challenge
In 1980, they produced only 50,000 refrigerators for domestic use only.
In 2008, they produced
- 48 million refrigerators
- 90 million color TVs
- 42 million clothes washers
- Most for export
China’s electricity use expanded 11-fold from 1980 to 2007.
Standards for most appliances established by 2005 are not strictly enforced.
10.4 The US Energy Policy Act of 2005
Designed to raise appliance efficiency standards enough to close 29 coal-fired plants.
Other provisions incentivize and encourage the adoption of energy-efficient technologies.
Would close an additional 37 coal-fired plants.
Would also reduce natural gas consumption substantially.
Overall, projected to reduce consumer energy bills in 2020 by > $20 billion.
This Act was not fully enforced prior to President Obama’s election.
10.5 Europeans vs. Americans
Europeans use half as much electricity as Americans do.
They still have a large potential for reducing energy usage.
- A refrigerator in Europe uses half as much electricity as one in the US
- But the most efficient ones on the market use only 1/4 as much electricity as the average refrigerator in Europe ⇒ Huge potential energy savings.
10.6 Japan’s Top Runner program
The world’s most dynamic system for upgrading appliance efficiency standards.
The most efficient appliances marketed today ⇒ Standard for tomorrow
Late 1990s-2007, Japan raised efficiency standards by 15-83%.
A 2008 report indicates that the program is running ahead of the initial goals.
Consumers often do not buy the most energy-efficient appliances.
If societies adopt a carbon tax, the efficient appliances would be attractive.
Energy use labeling requirements would help consumers.
More than 1,283 new coal-fired plants that the International Energy Agency (IEA) projects by 2020
The combined gain in lighting and appliance ⇒ Close 1,410 coal-fired plants
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11 Zero-carbon buildings
Energy Efficiency Building Retrofit Program assists companies
- Improving existing structures to make and save money
- Reducing carbon emissions
Architectural schools are changing the ways they educate future architects
- Energy efficient designs rather than designs based on fossil fuels
Germany requires all new construction to receive +15% of energy from renewable sources ⇒ Solar panels
11.1 Leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) certification
- Buildings are more energy-efficient
- Greensburg, Kansas rebuilding after 2007 Tornado
The US Green Building Council (USGBC)—World Green Building Council
- Countries are able to join when their government-owned buildings meet LEED certification
12 Electrifying the transport system
Redesigning urban transport: Oil-based vehicles ⇒ Electric-based ones
Cutting carbon emissions
Power comes from
- Wind farms
- Solar panels
- Geothermal power plants
Within Cities: Use light rail (e.g., MARTA), buses, bicycles, cars, and walking
Long distance: High speed trains!
12.1 Hybrid or all-electric vehicles
Recharging batteries in hybrid cars with off-peak wind-generated electricity ⇒ Less than $1 per gallon of gas-equivalent
Infrastructure is needed for more hybrids and all-electric vehicles to be in mass use.
- Kroger in Gainesville has charging stations
- UNG Gainesville has charging stations
What about electric car service stations in the future?
13 A new materials economy
Our modern society is based on throw-away economy.
The production, processing, and disposal of materials waste materials and energy.
30% of the world energy consumption ⇐ Production of new materials
13.1 Recycling and reusing materials
Energy savings from recycling or reusing materials to make something new
- Using plastic to make plastic
- Using papers to make papers
Many countries charge customers a fee for not bringing their own bag.
New Hampshire started “pay as you throw.”
- Citizens pay to throw away garbage
- Encourage recycling
Do YOU use recycling bins at home and school?
14 Smarter grids, appliances, and consumers
Currently unable to move low-cost electricity to consumers on existing lines
Need a new system to move renewable energy to congested areas
Increasing grid efficiency
Reward consumers for conserving energy use during peak times
15 Tiny houses
16 The energy savings potential
Identify energy saving measures to offset the 30% growth in global energy consumption projected by the IEA by 2020.
If more states would reach the same level of energy efficiency as top 10 states ⇒ 62% of US coal power plants could be closed
16.1 Improving energy efficiency
Shifting to energy-efficient lighting lowers world electricity use by 12%.
Reducing the reliance on the urban car for transportation
Creating carbon neutral buildings with energy efficient appliances
Recycling plastics could cut energy use by 32%.
16.2 Renewable energy
Converting to renewable energy sources and technology is fairly easy to do.
Moving to diversified transportation systems not reliant on fossil fuels
16.3 Carbon tax
Increase carbon tax to $55 per ton of CO2 generated, offsetting with a reduction in income taxes
However, it does not cover all the costs of burning fossil fuels.
17 Discussion: Carbon footprint
Calculate your daily carbon footprint (individually and as a team) approximately for different daily activities. You can find many carbon footprint calculators online. Present your data that you used in the calculator, and carbon emissions for those items. For example,
- Daily driving: kg of CO2
- Electricity: kg of CO2
And take the average of your team members’ carbon footprint.
Think about what you would change permanently if you have to change only one thing in your life style to reduce carbon emissions.