# Introduction to frequency-domain filtering

## 1 Spatial domain

Do you remember these filters?

- smoothing linear filters
- order-statistics non-linear filters
- Sobel filters
- Laplacian filters?

These filters are called spatial filters because they are applied to images “spatially.”

The domain of these spatial filters is the spatial domain (i.e., $f(x,y)$ or the $x$-$y$ spatial coordinates).

## 2 Frequency domain

Now, a Fourier-transformed image is in the frequency domain (i.e., $F(u,v)$ or $u$-$v$ frequency coordinates).

### 2.1 Plotting $F(u)e^{2i\pi ux/M}$ exercise

Do you want to see how a one-dimensional image is decomposed into multiple frequencies?

### 2.2 Reading the Fourier spectrum exercise

See the effect of $K$ in frequency_exercise_2.py.

This is the two-dimensional version: frequency_exercise_3.py.

## 3 Frequency-domain filtering

The fundamental idea behind frequency-domain filtering is to enhance images in the spatial domain by changing their Fourier transform in the frequency domain.

Low-frequency components in the Fourier transform represent the overall gray-level appearance of an image while high-frequency components, details such as edges.

### 3.1 Fourier transform components exercise

Try $F(0)=0$ and $F(3)=0$, and discuss what happens and why.

## 4 Frequency-domain filters

### 4.1 Low-pass filters

Low-pass filters “pass” low frequencies while attenuating high frequencies. Effects?

Reduced details $\rightarrow$ Smoothing

### 4.2 High-pass filters

High-pass filters “pass” high frequencies while attenuating low frequencies. Effects?

Reduced gray-level variations in smooth areas $\rightarrow$ Emphasized transitions

### 4.3 How do they work?

Element-by-element multiplication with the Fourier transform: \begin{align*} G(u,v)&=H(u,v)F(u,v)\\ g(x,y)&=\mathfrak{F}^{-1}[G(u,v)] \end{align*} where $G(u,v)$, $H(u,v)$, and $F(u,v)$ are the output Fourier transform, frequency-domain filter, and Fourier transform of the input image, respectively, $g(x,y)$ is the transformed image, and $\mathfrak{F}^{-1}$ denotes the inverse Fourier transform.

### 4.4 Notch filter

Probably, one of the simplest frequency-domain filter. We’ve already tried it manually in frequency_exercise_4.py.

\[H(u,v)= \begin{cases} 0& \text{if }(u,v)=(0,0)\\ 1& \text{otherwise.} \end{cases}\]

Or the shifted version (Remember why we shift the Fourier transform?)

\[H(u,v)= \begin{cases} 0& \text{if }(u,v)=(M/2,N/2)\\ 1& \text{otherwise.} \end{cases}\]

What does it do?

Set $F(0,0)=0$. That’s it. Effects?