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Eradicating poverty and stabilizing population

Dr. Huidae Cho
Institute for Environmental and Spatial Analysis...University of North Georgia

1   Educating everyone

Universal access to education will narrow the gap between rich and poor segments of society.

57-75 million children around the globe are currently not enrolled in school.

Why?

2   Poverty, education, population

The key to breaking out of the culture of poverty is education—particularly of girls. As female educational levels rise, fertility falls.

2.1   Ethiopia

Ethiopia has pioneered this with Girls Advisory Committees.

Representatives of these groups go to the parents who are seeking early marriage for their daughters and encourage them to keep their girls in school.

2.2   Brazil and Bangladesh

Some countries, Brazil and Bangladesh among them, actually provide small scholarships for girls or stipends to their parents where needed, thus helping those from poor families get a basic education.

3   UNESCO fact sheet no. 48 February 2018

In 2016, 263 million child, adolescents and youth were out of school.

  • 63 million (24%) between 6 and 11 years old (primary age)
  • 61 million (23%) between 12 to 14 years old (lower secondary age)
  • 139 million (53%) between 15 to 17 years old (upper secondary age)

Nearly one-fifth of the global population of this age group.

UNESCO adopted Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) in 2015.

No progress in reducing out-of-school numbers three years later.

4   Out-of-school statistics

4.1   Global out-of-school numbers

global-number-of-out-of-school-children-adolescents-and-youth-2000-2016.png

Image source

4.2   Out-of-school rate by region and age group

out-of-school-rate-by-region-and-age-group-2016.png

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4.3   Primary out-of-school rate

primary-out-of-school-rate-2016-or-latest-year.png

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5   Youth not in employment, education or training (NEET)

Poverty

→ Low educational attainment

→ Poor literacy and numeracy

→ No relevant job skills

→ Unemployment

6   Toward a healthy future

6.1   Industrialized countries

Industrialized countries suffer from

  • Heart disease
  • Cancer
  • Obesity
  • Smoking

6.2   Developing countries

Developing countries suffer from infectious diseases such as

  • Diarrhea
  • Respiratory illnesses
  • Tuberculosis
  • Malaria
  • Measles
  • AIDS

Child mortality is high because of lack of available vaccinations.

african-children.png

6.3   Solutions for developing countries

6.3.1   Egypt

Egypt alone used oral rehydration therapy to cut infant deaths from diarrhea by 82% between 1982 and 1989.

6.3.2   Safe water

Ensuring access to a safe and reliable supply of water for the estimated 1.1 billion people is essential to better health for all.

Many cities may be to bypass efforts to build costly water-based sewage removal and treatment systems and to opt instead for water-free waste disposal systems or dry composting toilets which do not disperse disease pathogens.

Guinea worm disease can be prevented by filtering drinking water.

6.3.3   Vaccination and education

Smallpox has been eradicated.

Polio is only in a few countries now.

AIDS has disrupted economic and social progress in Africa.

Tobacco-related illnesses are preventable by eliminating tobacco use.

7   Poverty on a global scale

Over 3 billion people (about 40% of the global population) live on less than \$2.50 a day.

Nearly a billion people are illiterate.

Less than 1% of what the world spent on weapons every year could put every child into school.

“One billion children (1 in 2 children in the world) live in poverty.”

About 21,000 children die every day around the world.

One child dies every 4 seconds.

8   Whome to blame?

Just blame poor people for their poverty?

Are they lazy?

Do they make poor decisions?

What about their governments in globalization?

Externally influenced by rich countries, multi-national corporations, etc.

9   Stabilizing population

Declining fertility

  • 33 countries with roughly 674 million people have populations that are either essentially stable or declining slowly.
  • Russia, Germany, Japan: declining
  • China, United States: stabilizing

Rising mortality

  • High HIV infection rates and wide-spread hunger are causes now.
  • Lack of water will be causing future deaths.
  • Lesotho, Swaziland

10   Poverty and population

This article shows tons of graphs over poverty across the world.

This information shows us the population growth around the world.

Pretty cool to see how many births and deaths today alone and over the past year.

Along how quickly the population is increasing.

You can also click on different countries to see their population.

11   Family planning is needed

11.1   Most populated countries

India and China

11.2   Family size matters

A smaller family size improves health, improves financial status, reduces hunger, increases access to education for women, and uses less natural resources.

Some countries have created legislation to regulate family size, such as China’s One Child Policy.

Some countries encourage education about family size and contraception.

Iran was the first country to require education on sterilization and birth control prior to issuing a marriage license.

TV ads sponsored by governments and Mexican soap operas encourage people to seek out contraceptives and have reduced the birth rate in these countries.

12   Failing states

A Failing State is a political term referring to a national government who is likely to dissolve because of bankruptcy, losing a war, or unable to meet the basic needs of their citizenry.

Many failing states experience civil war, internal conflicts, and terrorist activity.

Rapid population growth, poverty, deteriorating environmental support systems, and spreading water shortages are all causes for states to fail.

12.1   Failing global civilization

If the number of failing states continues to increase, at some point, this trend will translate into a failing global civilization.

12.2   Rescuing failing states

12.2.1   Colombia

Colombia has an improving economy because of strong coffee prices and better government.

12.2.2   Liberia

A fierce effort to root out corruption and a multinational U.N. Peacekeeping Force of 15,000 troops who maintain the peace, repair roads, schools, and hospitals, and train police have brought progress to this war-torn country of Liberia.

12.2.3   Financial supports

Financial support for grassroots programs, including teaching in schools and helping to organize family planning, tree planting, and micro-lending programs can help countries improve their status.

13   A poverty eradication agenda

13.1   Increasing fuel and food prices

Increases in fuel and food prices have pushed 130 million people below the poverty line.

13.2   Farm subsidies

For many developing countries, the reform of farm subsidies in aid-giving industrial countries and debt relief may be equally important.

Capitalized and global commercial agriculture practices reduce interest in helping small farmers in developing countries.

13.3   Farm subsidies in the United States

U.S. cotton subsidies have faced a spirited challenge from four cotton-producing countries in Central Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, and Mali.

U.S. farm subsidies depress prices of exports from developing countries, the subsidy for converting grain into ethanol raises the price of grain, which most low-income countries import.

In effect, U.S. taxpayers are subsidizing an increase in world hunger.

14   A poverty eradication budget

14.1   Universal primary education

An estimated \$10 billion in external funding, beyond what is being spent today, is needed for the world to achieve universal primary education for children.

14.2   Adult education

An adult literacy program to educate 800 million would cost \$4 billion per year.

14.3   Reducing hunger

Launching school lunch programs in the 44 lowest-income countries would cost an estimated \$6 billion per year beyond what the United Nations is now spending to reduce hunger.

14.4   Health care

Many illnesses are preventable.

At only 3¢ each, or \$441 million, the cost of saved lives by supplying condoms is minuscule compared to the cost of treating AIDS.

Providing basic universal health care in developing countries will require \$33 billion a year.

14.5   Filling the gap

In an effort to fill a gap in this global program, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has invested more than \$1.5 billion to protect children from infectious diseases like measles.